1858-93: French conquest and rule.

1940-45: Japan takes over. Vietminh declare independence after Japanese leave. UK restores French rule in south.

1946-1954: France fights Vietminh. From 1949 China backs Vietminh, US backs French.

1954-1956: French defeated. Vietnam divided into North and South. US undermines peace. French leave.

1957 onwards: Rule in South opposed by North and internally.

1961-1962: US and UK back South. US atrocites commence.

1964-1975: US fakes Gulf of Tonkin incident to justify war; conducts vast bombing of North; later bombs and invades Cambodia; commits atrocities and is finally driven out.

1976-: Vietnam suffers the after effects of a brutal war and struggles to recover; invades Cambodia to overthrow Pol Pot and is briefly invaded by China. The IMF and World Bank make things worse whilst foreign firms make a profit.